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Discrepancies in ABO and Rh Grouping in Southeast Iran, an Analysis of 3 Years’ Experience

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ABO and Rh blood group discrepancies account for a considerable number of reported transfusion-associated reaction. But the focus now is almost entirely on the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections.

ABO and Rh Grouping
ABO and Rh Grouping

Grouping errors can result in significant, even fatal, outcomes. Fortunately, most of these errors do not lead to a clinically adverse outcome. Human errors are a significant contribution to blood grouping discrepancies but some errors are not inevitable. The transfusion laboratory is unique among diagnostic laboratories because its life-saving blood products may, at the same time, be lifethreatening agents. Since blood transfusion is a long and complicated process involving many steps and individuals, there is potential for a high rate of error. ABO and Rh discrepancy can thus occur.  Read More>>>>>>>>>

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Nanoparticles to Deal with Gastric Cancer

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Gastric cancer, a multifactorial disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Among all other cancers it ranks in number four because of its occurrence. Several factors are involved behind this deadly disease.

Factors involve in gastric cancer occurrence
Factors involve in gastric cancer occurrence

The factors could be environmental, bacterial or it could be host related. Some of the ethnic groups are more prone to this disease in comparison with others. Factors that could be responsible for gastric cancer occurrence. Though the number of gastric cancer incidents are getting low in the Western countries, which has been observed from the past few years, but still it remains pretty high in Asian region i.e. Korea, Japan. Read More>>>>>>>

Imaging Retinal Amyloid The Virtual Brain Biopsy

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia with a worldwide prevalence of about 25 million in 2010 and is expected to double by 2030 because of increased life expectancy. The traditional diagnosis of AD connotes “Alzheimer’s disease dementia” – when the disease is in the late stage.

Retinal amyloid
Retinal amyloid

 

More recently, the clinical disease stages of AD have been divided into three phases. First is a pre-symptomatic phase in which individuals are cognitively normal but some have AD pathological changes. Labeling these individuals as having pre-symptomatic AD is conjecture rather than fact, as some of these individuals will die without ever expressing clinical symptoms.  Read More>>>>>>

Baclofen Treatment for Pain in Nonfunctional Children with Cerebral Palsy

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Recurrent and chronic pain of moderate intensity has been documented in most children suffering from cerebral palsy (CP,) the common cause of disability in children (2:1000 live births). The spastic, hypertonic element of this congenital motor disorder may be one an important source of pain. 70% of children with CP experience recurrent chronic pain of moderate intensity on a daily or weekly basis.

Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral Palsy

Physiotherapy required on a daily basis involves painful exercises and may be limited by pain. Pain evaluation in children is generally based on childrens’ report or parents’ impression. However, in severely disabled children with limited communication, pain assessment is challenging. Difficulty in pain evaluation may lead to underestimation of pain resulting in under or over treatment. Read More>>>>>>>>>

Pandemic Disease Swine Flu: H1N1 Virus Clinical and Prevention Aspects

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The H1N1 subtype of Influenza A virus is the causative agent of swine flu. The 2009 outbreak caused by subtype H1N1 in humans is due to transfer of Swine Influenza Virus from pig to human. Thus to analyze the origin of this novel virus we compared the nucleocapsid sequences of H1N1 viruses of different origins.

Swine flu
Swine flu

Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences was carried out along with bootstrap analysis of 100 replicates. The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed that Indian H1N1 strain showed the highest homology with Iowa H1N1 strain and also with Wisconsin H1N1 strain. Further the H1N1 strains analyzed using NP sequences of different Indian origins showed highly close sequence similarity. Hence, in future this study will be helpful for knowing the taxonomy and evolution of influenza viruses.  Read More>>>>>>>>>>>

Melatonin: Another Phytohormone

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Since melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) had been discovered in phototrophic organisms, first in a dinoflagellate and later in plants, this compound has been detected in numerous algae and plant species.

Melatonin
Melatonin

Notably, the concentrations measured in plants were highly divergent, frequently in the nanomolar range, sometimes at the borderline of detection, but in other cases, above 20 or even 30 μg/g. Even levels in the range of 200 μg/g have been reported to be present in kernels of some Iranian Pistacia vera cultivars. Early research in this field had focused on two aspects, the presence of high melatonin levels in medicinal plants, and the possibility of functions similar to those known from vertebrate animals, especially the transmission of the signal ‘darkness’ in photoperiodic responses. Read More>>>>>>

Amaurosis Fugax and Cycloplegia in an Adolescent

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Amaurosis fugax (AF), mainly occurring in adults, is defined as transient monocular loss of vision lasting from seconds to minutes usually reported in middle aged and elderly people. It is associated in them with atherosclerotic process of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery  representing in impending stroke.

Amaurosis Fugax
Amaurosis Fugax

The diagnosis of AF was mainly based on the patients’ reports that could not be regularly examined during the acute short- lived episodes. Commonly, they described a “mosaic” or “jigsaw” pattern of isolated scotoma that progressively enlarged resulting in complete visual loss. The amaurosis fugax study group considered various multiple deficiencies other than cerebro-vascular associated with AF including coagulation and immunological reasons.  Read More>>>>>>>>