Gastroenterology

Nanoparticles to Deal with Gastric Cancer

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Gastric cancer, a multifactorial disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Among all other cancers it ranks in number four because of its occurrence. Several factors are involved behind this deadly disease.

Factors involve in gastric cancer occurrence
Factors involve in gastric cancer occurrence

The factors could be environmental, bacterial or it could be host related. Some of the ethnic groups are more prone to this disease in comparison with others. Factors that could be responsible for gastric cancer occurrence. Though the number of gastric cancer incidents are getting low in the Western countries, which has been observed from the past few years, but still it remains pretty high in Asian region i.e. Korea, Japan. Read More>>>>>>>

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Prognostic Factors in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients With Suprapancreatic Lymph Node Metastasis

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Lymph node (LN) metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors for patients after gastrectomy. In Asian countries, gastrectomy with extended (D2) lymphadenectomy is performed as a standard procedure for advanced gastric cancer, whereas gastrectomy with perigastric (D1) lymphadenectomy is used in western countries.

Kaplan-Meier
Kaplan-Meier

Whether gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy improves the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains controversial. The prognosis of gastric cancer patients with extended metastatic LNs is thought to be worse than that of patients without metastasis. The extended LNs of gastric cancer mainly consist of LNs along the common hepatic and splenic arteries.  Read More>>>>>

A Comparison of Prognostic Scoring Systems in Turkish Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients

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Although alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a relatively common life threatening liver disease, some controversy exists about its assessment. The most important two points are to assess the mortality risk and the decision to use corticosteroid and/or pentoxyfylline treatment. Several prognostic scores have been described regarding these two key factors.

Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients
Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients

The first score for AH, the discriminant function (DF) score, was described in 1978 and modified in 1989. The second score, the Glasgow AH (GAHS) score, was developed in 2005 and revealed that patients with GAHS ≥ 9 may benefit from treatment with corticosteroids. Thereafter, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and age, bilirubin, International Normalized Ratio (INR) and creatinine (ABIC) scores have been presented to assess patients diagnosed with AH. Read More>>>>>>>>

Pancreatitis and Metformin: Case-Report and Review of Literature

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Metformin is the most used anti-hyperglycemic agent for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. It is considered a very good drug, with low risk and high benefit, if prescribed in the right clinical condition.

Histological aspects of pancreatitis.
Histological aspects of pancreatitis.

It allows a good control of diabetes and lowers blood triglycerides of 15% to 20%, without any weight gain and without impairing the glucose level. These effects are the result of inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, improving peripheral glucose sensitivity, reducing intestinal absorption and appetite too. Acute side effects are reported in about 20% of patients: nausea, abdominal discomfort, metals flavor, anorexia. Read More>>>>>>

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) on Aspirin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Rats

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Andre Robert introduced the term ‘cytoprotection’ first time. He used this term for protection of experimentally induced gastric ulcer by prostaglandins. But later on, this term is broadly used for protection of gastric mucosal injury except injuries caused by gastric acid inhibition or neutralization.

Desquamation prevalence in stomach ulcer
Desquamation prevalence in stomach ulcer

Despite intensive research of the last few decades, gastro-protection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori -negative ulcers and preventing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence “gastric cytoprotection” research is still relevant. Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is commonly used as an analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antiplatelet and antithrombotic drug. Read More>>>>>>>

Pneumatosis Intestinalis in Patient with Relapsing Polychondritis

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Relapsing polychondritis (RP) involves recurrently and progressively proteoglycan-rich organs and was first described in 1923 as “Polychondropathia. Yun et al. reported first RP case in Korea. Meanwhile, pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) refers to the presence of gas within the submucosa or subserosa of the bowel well.

Chest plain radiography
Chest plain radiography

In 2007, a RP patient who presented PI was reported in Korea for the first time in the world. We have then experienced a second PI case in a patient with RP. We suspected an association between RP, the episode of PI, and possibly steroid use as well. We examined the case of pneumatosis intestinalis in a 44-year-old male of RP patient. Read More>>>>>>>

Capsule Endoscopy for Differentiating Early Crohn’s Disease from Behçet’s Disease

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Crohn’s disease (CD) and Behçet’s disease (BD) are two major causes of inflammatory lesions in the small bowel. For detecting such lesions, the most sensitive exam is small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE), an imaging modality suitable for evaluating lesions of the small intestine, with a relatively low rate of capsule retention.

Behçet's Disease
Behçet’s Disease

However, few reports have employed CE to compare the small-bowel inflammation in early CD with that in early BD. Thus, the aim of our study was to obtain a systematic characterization of small-bowel lesions in early CD and BD by using CE. Methods: This retrospective single-center study included 22 patients with early CD and 16 patients with early BD. The patients underwent small-bowel CE for detection and characterization of small-bowel lesions. Read More>>>>>