Hematology

Discrepancies in ABO and Rh Grouping in Southeast Iran, an Analysis of 3 Years’ Experience

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ABO and Rh blood group discrepancies account for a considerable number of reported transfusion-associated reaction. But the focus now is almost entirely on the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections.

ABO and Rh Grouping
ABO and Rh Grouping

Grouping errors can result in significant, even fatal, outcomes. Fortunately, most of these errors do not lead to a clinically adverse outcome. Human errors are a significant contribution to blood grouping discrepancies but some errors are not inevitable. The transfusion laboratory is unique among diagnostic laboratories because its life-saving blood products may, at the same time, be lifethreatening agents. Since blood transfusion is a long and complicated process involving many steps and individuals, there is potential for a high rate of error. ABO and Rh discrepancy can thus occur.  Read More>>>>>>>>>

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EAM as a New Conditioning Regimen for Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Autologous Progenitor Cell Transplantation

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Autologous progenitor cells transplantation (APCT) after a high dose conditioning chemotherapy is now an established treatment modality for many hematological malignancies such as lymphoma.

Autologous Progenitor Cell Transplantation
Autologous Progenitor Cell Transplantation

Clinical results and survival after APCT depend on disease chemo sensitivity at transplant and the efficacy of the conditioning regimen at eradicating the residual tumor cell clone. The impact of the conditioning regimen is a controversial matter and despite efforts to identify high-dose regimens with increasing antitumor activity and acceptable toxicity to normal tissues, there is not yet clear evidence of a superior conditioning platform that should be applied in the setting of recurring lymphoma patients, at least in terms of tumor-eradicating capacity.  Read More>>>

Madindoline A Affects the Osteogenic Potential and the Wnt Signaling Pathways during Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in vitro

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate to mature osteoblasts during a process named osteogenesis, which is characterized by upregulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and formation of a calcium-rich mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM).

Madindoline A
Madindoline A

Several signaling pathways are involved in regulation of osteogenesis and direct MSCs into the osteogenic lineage, where the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is the master switch for osteogenesis . Also the Wnt signaling pathways are essential for the guidance of MSCs towards the osteoblastic lineage. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is implicated as the dominant mechanism in bone biology.  Read More>>>>>

Clinical Articularities of Drug-induced Agranulocytosis or Severe Neutropenia in Elderly Patients

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Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis, or severe neutropenia, is characterized by: a neutrophil count under 0.5×109/L; usually health impairment; and often severe infections such as pneumonia, septicemia or septic shock, in case of natural evolution. In the majority of cases, the neutrophil count is under 0.1×109/L.

Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis
Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis

All drugs may be causative but clozapine, antithyroid drugs, sulphasalazine have been regularly incriminated. It is a relatively rare disorder, more frequently reported in elderly patients who are receiving on the average a larger number of drugs than younger subjects. Because of the infections in often frailty patients, it is associated with an estimated mortality rate of 5% to 20%. Read More>>>>>>>>

Sjogren’s Syndrome with Polyserositis, Gastrointestinal Findings and Ascending Aortic Aneurysm

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Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder and can cause many organic changes. Although disease pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated, substantial data has been demonstrated for diagnosis. Over the past 15 years, two sets of criteria have been published.

Bilateral pleural effusion and enlargement of aortic root.
Bilateral pleural effusion and enlargement of aortic root.

New 2016 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for primary Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) have been developed and endorsed by the ACR. Pulmonary involvement in SS include xerotrachea, bronchial sicca, obstructive small airway disease, interstitial lung diseases, lymphproliferative lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, pleurites, pleural effusion, and thickened pleura. Cardiac involvement includes pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and atrioventricular conduction block.  Read More>>>>>>>>

Multiple Modes of Blood Coagulation

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The standard view of blood coagulation is based on the idea that a “cascade” of enzymatic events, the “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” pathways of coagulation both generating thrombin, which converts fibrinogen into an insoluble fibrin clot.

Classic coagulation cascade
Classic coagulation cascade

Consequently, much of the biomedical focus relating to blood coagulation has been on the clotting factor thrombin (clotting factor IIa), resulting from the “trypsinic” cleavage of prothrombin (clotting factor II) into thrombin (clotting factor IIa). For example, citrate is added to donated blood units to chelate Ca(II), which prevents the activation of carboxylated pro-factors (clotting factors II,VII, IX, X) into enzymatically functioning proteins (factors IIa, VIIa, IXa, Xa respectively). Read More>>>>>>>

Atypical Presentation of Myeloid Sarcoma Mimicking a Subcutaneous Hematoma as Complication of MDS and AML

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About less than 1% of patients with CML or acute leukemic transformations of other chronic disorders such as myeloproliferative neoplasms, particularly myelofibrosis, will present with and extramedullary presentation. These presentations are known as myeloid sarcoma, also called granulocytic sarcoma, myeloblastoma, or chloroma.

Lesion on right arm, consistent with hematoma
Lesion on right arm, consistent with hematoma

When found in association with blood or bone marrow involvement, it occurs most commonly as either cutaneous or gingival infiltration by leukemic cells. However, sites of isolated myeloid sarcoma include bone, periosteum, soft tissues, and lymph nodes, and less commonly the orbit, intestine, mediastinum, epidural region, uterus, and ovary.  Read More>>>>>>>>>>