Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia with a worldwide prevalence of about 25 million in 2010 and is expected to double by 2030 because of increased life expectancy. The traditional diagnosis of AD connotes “Alzheimer’s disease dementia” – when the disease is in the late stage.
More recently, the clinical disease stages of AD have been divided into three phases. First is a pre-symptomatic phase in which individuals are cognitively normal but some have AD pathological changes. Labeling these individuals as having pre-symptomatic AD is conjecture rather than fact, as some of these individuals will die without ever expressing clinical symptoms. Read More>>>>>>
Bentonite is clay material. Clays are naturally occurring, and they are the most abundant surface minerals on earth, constituting approximately 40% of earth’s crust. They were formed in various ways such as, weathering product of volcanic ash, tuff or other rocks, a hydrothermal product, and as a diagenetic product in ocean basins.
Bentonites have a multitude of applications because of their surface activity. Applications include among others, ceramics, paper industry, building materials. Lagaly and Ziesmer distinguish between large volume applications, which include, foundry moulding sands, oil well drilling, pelletizing iron ore, sealing materials and civil engineering applications, and small volume applications which include paints, adhesives (in asphaltic materials and latex), for pharmaceutical uses, in cosmetics, as filling materials and for water (and wine) purification. Read More>>>>>>
Results in crystal optics obtained during the past fifty years provide a solid foundation for the progress of modern photonics. Concepts developed in the physics of crystalline solids can potentially be applied to the physics of photonic super crystals.
While the theory of impurity bands and excitons in semiconductor crystals has been constructed in 1970-1980, an analogous theory for photonic crystals is yet to be completed. Read More>>>>>>>>>>>
The Green’s function is a powerful tool of mathematics method is used in solving some linear non-homogenous PDEs, ODEs. So Green’s functions are derived by the specially development method of separation of variables, which uses the properties of Dirac’s function.
This method was considerable more efficient than the others well known classical methods. The series solution of differential equation yields an infinite series which often converges slowly. Thus it is difficult to obtain an insight into over-all behavior of the solution. The Green’s function approach would allow us to have an integral representation of the solution instead of an infinite series. Read More>>>>
Angiogenesis are basic processes of new blood vessels formation. Vasculogenesis entails the differentiation of mesodermal cells into endothelial precursor cells. When vascular damage is occurred, vessels are able to regenerate via angiogenesis, which is formation of blood vessel from pre-existing blood vessel by the sprouting, splitting, and remodeling of the vascular network.
Since the discovery of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) has been believed that vasculogenesis be able to occur in adult, they have used for the application of cell therapy using putative endothelial cell population for several vascular diseases. With this cell therapy concept several kinds of cellular sources which obtained from adult source were highlighted as stem cell reservoir, including cord blood, peripheral blood, fat, bone marrow, liver, and etc. Read More>>>>>>>
A Simple and Efficient Methodology for the Study of Cardioprotective Drugs in Animal Model of Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion
Recent studies suggest that ischemic cardiac diseases can cause 26 million of deaths per year in worldwide after 2030. Among the ischemic cardiac diseases, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represents the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
The coronary reperfusion therapy constitutes the major therapeutic strategy to salvage the myocardium from tissue injury following prolonged ischemia in AMI patients. However, the beneficial effects of this therapy are compromised by myocardial injuries caused during coronary reperfusion that subsequently lead to cardiac dysfunctions, including arrhythmias. Read More>>>>>>>>>>