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Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy with increasing incidence rate in recent years. Females are more likely to have thyroid cancer at a ratio of 3:1. The main risk factors of thyroid cancer are genetic factor, environmental factors and exposure to ionization radiations at childhood . Exposure to ionization radiations cause single strand and double strand breaks and can produce chromosomal damage and release of reactive oxygen species that causes genomic instability. In human there are many pathways to repair this DNA damage, out of which double strand break repair (DSBR) pathway is an important and preferred pathway to repair such lesion.This pathway has two types, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombinant repair (HRR) pathway. HRR is an error prone pathway which is template specific and considered to play a significant role in the repair of DNA double strand damage produced by ionization radiations. HR encompasses many genes, but major role is performed by RAD51 and RAD51-like genes such as XRCC2 and XRCC3.
X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 2 (XRCC2 ) is very important gene which plays a basic role in DNA repair in conjunction with Rad51 paralogs (Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D and XRCC3 ). XRCC2 protein is a RAD51-related protein, essential for efficient homologous recombinant repair of DNA double strand breaks . It is thus essential for maintenance of chromosome stability, forming part of a nucleoprotein filament acting as a cofactor for the RAD51 strand invasion and exchange activities .
So far, only limited studies have examined the association between DNA- repair gene XRCC2 polymorphisms and thyroid cancer. However the selected hot spot promoter polymorphisms in this study have not been investigated in thyroid cancer. Therefore in this study, we have performed a case-control study to investigate three important promoter gene polymorphisms (SNPs) as G4234C (rs3218384), G4088T (rs3218373) and G3063A (rs2040639) in the XRCC2 gene in thyroid cancer patients and age and sex matched healthy controls in Pakistani population. Additionally we also determined the association of these selected polymorphisms with different risk factors such as age, gender and smoking in order to elucidate the gene-environment interaction in carcinogenesis of thyroid gland.
Therapy of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive negative pathogen is a frequent problem due to the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to numerous drugs. Recently many different bacteria now exhibit multi-drug resistance, including Staphylococci sp andPseudomonas aeruginosa. Bee’s products are believed to be an important source of new natural substances with potential therapeutic effects.
Recently, the potent activity of honey against antibiotic-resistant bacteria has further increased the interest for application of honey. Several honeys have been approved for clinical application. A review of different antibacterial studies showed that the antibacterial properties of honey depend on the geographical origin of the honey. Honey bees have been traditionally recognized as valuable source of energy which contains antibacterial and antifungal proprieties.
Several bioactive compounds have been identified in honey which contributed to its antibacterial action. In many studies, the presences of peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial capacity in honey have been reported. The presence of hydrogen peroxide generated by enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase in diluted honey is considered as the major antibacterial factor. Furthermore, heating honey inactivates the glucose and it oxidates phenolic compounds as important factors for the non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey .
The non-peroxide antibacterial activity is insensitive to heat and light. Several authors also studied the correlations between color and antibacterial activities with content of the bioactive compounds of honey. Various studies have been conducted to investigate the antimicrobial effects. Limited studies have been done on Algerian honey. Current analysis assessed the antibacterial activities and the content of colour intensity, phenolic contents in 3 honey samples.